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What is Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana?

In order to overcome this situation the Government of India has introduced the program known as Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY). The program was introduced on 25th December 2000 with the aim to create best accessible roads to non-connected rural areas. This program is totally funded by central government with 50% cess on the high speed diesel is designated for the program. Under the PMGSY program the target is to accomplish total rural connectivity through all-weather accessible roads by the year 2019. The program is accelerated through quick implementations on the targets that can be achieved as early as possible. There have been advancements in the allocation of funds from financial year 2015-16. More than 29000 villages are connected through roads during the year 2015 to 2017 under this program.


Targets of the PMGSY program

  • The basic target of the program is to create a good connectivity of the rural areas by constructing roads which are resistant to all-weather conditions also having culverts and cross-drainage system.
  • The connectivity to be given for rural areas having a population of more than 1000 people during the year 2000 to 2003 and for the areas having a population of more than 500 by the year 2007.
  • The hill states like Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttaranchal and desert areas will have road connectivity with the rural areas having a population of more than 250 people.
  • Upgradation will be done for the roads which are built under the scheme in all eligible rural areas. The Upgradation will not exceed 20% of state fund allocation where there is still non-connectivity between the eligible rural habitations.
  • Rural road network having more traffic will be preferred first for the Upgradation work under this program.

There are certain defined guidelines provided in this PMGSY which are essential for the proper execution of the program. They are


Guidelines of PMGSY program

  • The program is intended to provide best accessible all-weather road connectivity to the non-connected rural areas. But the rural areas which have previous road connectivity will not be able to get benefits under this program even if the condition of road currently is worse.
  • Here habitation is provided the benefits of this program. A habitation is not a revenue village or gram panchayat. A habitation can be called as a population cluster in an area and the location of that area does not change over time.
  • The non-connected habitation is area having a population of more than 250 people which is located at a distance of at least 500 meters from the road or connected habitation. In case of hilly area the distance should be at least 1.5 kms.
  • As per the records in census 2001, the population of the habitation area will be considered for the eligibility of the program. The population within a radius of 500 meters will be considered for eligibility. This will help to implement connectivity for all habitations living in hilly areas.
  • When eligible a non-connected habitation area should be connected with the other near connected habitation so that all facilities like education and health can be made available to the non-connected habitation people.
  • The core network of roads is the network of all-weather connectivity between two habitation areas where all services and amenities are provided through these accessible roads.
  • Core network of roads is the single connectivity between two habitation areas leading to connectivity to major roads leading to market center. The entire small connective roads together link to the major district or state highways. Small link roads connect each habitation to one another and further this traffic gets connected with the major road.
  • Every road construction taken under this program is the part of core network. The main preference should be given to those roads which provide essential services to other habitation areas. Despite of population based objectives the roads should be constructed first which have more traffic and supply of amenities to small habitations which lack of them.
  • Rural roads which connect one habitation with the other are eligible under the PGMSY scheme. State roads and highways are not covered under this program. Even the urban roads are not eligible under this program. Only other district roads which connect rural habitation with district markets and village roads are to be constructed under this scheme. The same guidelines are for Upgradation work also.
  • The PMGSY program provides only single road connectivity to habitations. If there is previous road connectivity with that habitation then it will not be eligible for the program implementation.
  • A new connectivity is the connectivity of single road to non-connected habitation. New connectivity serves as a purpose of accessible connectivity of farm with the market directly.
  • The Upgradation work is exactly construction base and surface of existing road meeting required technical specifications and improvement of the condition of the road making it suitable for all weather access.
  • The all-weather road is basically the road which enables smooth flow of road traffic even in the worse weather conditions. There is proper cross drainage system along with culverts and causeways on the constructed road. The road should not be black topped or surfaced in any conditions.
  • Roads which do not have cross drainage system will be converted into the all-weather road through Upgradation work. All the roads constructed under PMGSY program should essentially have a cross drainage system.
  • Under this program roads having black top or cement roads will not be repaired incase even when the condition of that road is not good.
  • According to the provision of Indian Roads Congress (IRC) as given in Rural Roads Manual (IRC: SP20:2002) the eligible rural roads will be constructed under this program. For the construction of hilly roads the Hill Roads Manual (IRC: SP: 48) can be referred.

According to these targets the implementation of Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana is done. But a proper planning is essential for its right implementation considering cost effectively and also completion of work within time. Let’s see what are the planning steps required for the accurate execution of this program.


Planning for implementation

  • The manual which is used for the construction of rural roads and core network is treated as a guideline for the further implementation of the program.
  • District rural roads plan will be helpful to study the existing road network and further identify roads to be constructed for providing accessible connectivity between habitations. Core network will help identify the requirements for the construction of roads which will improve connectivity and supply of amenities to non-connected habitations.
  • Prior to preparing the district road plan the indications from district panchayat is taken into consideration regarding economic and social services required and accordingly preferences will be given to road construction.
  • The block level master plan will include the manual guidelines along with the core network map and considerations from the district panchayat. Identification of non-connected habitations will be done at this stage.
  • Post block level master plan the core network is easily identified and further execution of the plan can be done. Habitations within 10 kms of path distance will be clustered together for the road connectivity. Along with it economic and social requirements of the non-connected habitations should be considered before the execution.
  • Intermediate panchayat will consider and approve the block level master plan and core network. The plans are also sent to the members of parliament and members of the legislative assembly. Once approved by them, the plan will be sent to district panchayat for further consideration. On the approval of the plan will be sent to state level agency and national rural roads development agency.

Post approval of the plan the amount of funding which is required for the construction and Upgradation work is allocated under the program guidelines. The estimation of cost required for the construction is then allocated by the central government towards every state. The state authorities distribute funds as per the district’s core network plan. 80% of the funds are allocated for the construction of all-weather roads connecting habitations. The remaining 20% of the funds are allocated for the Upgradation work under this program. The funds are imparted to the ministry, national rural roads development agency and state level agency. Every year the funds will be allocated according to the district wise requirement for the construction of roads under this program.


Roads Under PMGSY

Roads which are undertaken already under this program will be excluded from the current estimate and while preparing district wise funds allocation. Extra allocation up to 5% of the total annual allocation from diesel cess share will be made for districts which share border with Pakistan, China, Myanmar, Nepal and Bangladesh. It will also be made for extremely backward districts, tribal districts, left wing extremists’ areas and research and development projects or innovations. The roads which are proposed for construction under this program are selected according to the comprehensive new connectivity priority lists prepared at district level in each state. Upgradation and maintenance work is also done through priority lists.

The road construction work is divided as area wise in the district and contractors working in relevant field are allowed to take up the work. The state government conducts open bidding system i.e. tenders for the execution of this program. Contractors who are eligible can purchase these tenders and complete the construction within the time prescribed by state government and within the budget. In order to improve transparency in the tendering process, the state government has introduced e procurement tender system which is available through online e portal.

In the case when a contractor delays the road construction work then they will be liable for the payment of liquidated damages during the work completion period. The contractor is responsible to test the work quality and quality of material used for the work. State government appoints independent officials to check work quality. Central government also appoints independent national quality monitors to check the quality of construction done by these contractors. On completion of road the citizens information board is displayed on the road by the executors.


Targets of PMGSY

The PMGSY program has a target of achieving construction of 2.23 lakh kilometers roads by the year 2019. The funds allocation has been increased to Rs 19,000 crores from Rs 14,200 crores. Previously the daily speed of road construction was 73.5 kms but now it’s increased to 100 kms a day.


Conclusion

The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana is definitely a good approach towards development of infrastructure in our country. Rural roads are important for both social and economic growth of population living in rural areas. Due to core network connectivity between habitations it is quite helpful for people to avail emergency services from other areas too. Exchange of services like healthcare, education and market are possible through this core network of roads. The roads built under this program have resistance to all weather conditions and also have less maintenance. Further this core network connectivity is attached to state highways which allow farmers from rural areas to send their agriculture produce to urban markets. There is a rise in the income and economic development of the rural population due to better road connectivity. Altogether programs like PMGSY contribute in achieving overall development of our nation.


Frequently Asked Questions

Q- What are the main objectives of Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana? When it was launched?

The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) was launched in December 2000 by the central government. The main objective of the program is to serve better connectivity of all-weather roads to non-connected rural habitations. Non-connected habitations having a population of more than 250 will be eligible for this program.


Q- On what basis a village or habitation is selected to receive benefits under this program?

The eligibility for this program is for the habitations having a population of 250 and more. Village is not considered for the selection criteria while implementing this program. A habitation is a group of population living in the 500 meter radius which is considered for the all-weather road construction. All habitations present within 10 kms of path distance are considered as a cluster. In the case of habitations living in hilly areas the habitations between path distances of 1.5 kms will be considered as a cluster.


Q- What is the selection criteria for the habitations and who are responsible for the selection?

Panchayat officials along with villagers and district officials create a core network plan by surveying non-connected habitations. The habitations will be selected on a priority basis. Such as considering traffic flow, services like healthcare and education will be considered for prioritization. District officials will further send this plan for approvals from authorities. Once approved the roads will be constructed under PMGSY.


Q- What type of roads will be constructed under this scheme and their maintenance?

A single road will be constructed which will be all-weather. It means that the road will be able to withstand all weather conditions. Cross drainage system and culverts will be added while constructing the road solving the problem of drainage flow. Constructed roads passing through residential area will be accompanied by concrete pavement which will help to avoid household waste to accumulate on the road. Once the road is constructed the maintenance will be carried every five years panchayat raj institutions will be responsible for the maintenance of these roads. Upgradation will also be done to the roads which are previously constructed under this program.


Q- Who will execute the construction of under this program and any rectification if required in future?

The contractor will be responsible for the construction of roads under this program. The tendering system will be provided from the state government. Contractors having good work experience in relevant field will be eligible to get the tender. The tendering system is done online through e portal. The contractor should execute the road construction work in given time and within budget. In case of any defects in roads in next five years the contractor will be responsible for the rectification of it.


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CA Abhishek Soni

Abhishek Soni is a Chartered Accountant by profession & entrepreneur by passion. He is the co-founder & CEO of Tax2Win.in. Tax2win is amongst the top 25 emerging startups of Asia and authorized ERI by the Income Tax Department. In the past, he worked in EY and comes with wide industry experience from telecom, retail to manufacturing to entertainment where he has handled various national and international assignments.